British Citizenship Test has been introduced to aid the people who want to migrate to the United Kingdom
to adapt into British Society. It will includes UK's culture and Society, British Citizen requirements, politics of United Kingdom.
How are some of the Useful articles to know about British Citizenship Test in detail. By following this, one
can easily come to an idea about UK Citizenship, traditions of United Kingdom. Also provides with material to prepare for the Life in the
Whether you are going to be a temporary or permanent resident living in the UK,
you have certain rights (roles) and responsibilities.
1. Obeying the Laws of the Land
First and foremost of your responsibility is that British Citizens must obey the
law. Laws may be unfamiliar to you (for example drinking hour’s laws, driving restrictions
or human rights laws). Any Citizens Advice Bureau – which is free to use – will
be able to advise you of your responsibilities or you can also go to local libraries
to find information or use the Internet free of charge.
During your stay you will have the right to be fairly and lawfully treated regardless
of age, race, gender, sexual orientation, disability and religion – the last one
also meaning that you must show respect for other faiths as well as your own.
If it is necessary that you report to the police, then you must do so. This may
be because you only have temporary permission to come to the UK or if you are stateless.
British Citizens who live permanently in the UK have the right to re-enter the country
at any time. A British Citizen means someone with a close connection with the UK
(usually by descent, birth, adoption, marriage, registration or naturalisation).
You must have a right of abode to work without restrictions.
British citizens are also entitled to health care from the National Health Service
(NHS) – some of this may be free of charge, but it depends on your residency status
and length of stay in the UK. Permanent residents get the right to free treatment
from GP’s (local doctors) and hospitals. If you are on a low income you may qualify
for extra free healthcare including prescriptions, dental care, eyesight tests and
help to pay for glasses.
Some treatment on the NHS may be free for asylum seekers whose applications are
pending, anyone having legally lived in the UK for 12 months or diplomatic staff,
but if you do not fall into these categories, treatment may have to be paid for.
Finding a home will be an important issue and social housing or accommodation is
available, but usually this is allotted on a points system. However, British Citizens
have the right to temporary accommodation whilst waiting to be housed.
If you rent a home (usually this means finding a money deposit and then you are
responsible for paying the landlord a regular amount). If you buy a house by means
of a loan (mortgage), then you are responsible for making sure that all payments
are made, otherwise your house may be taken away from you by the lender. All properties
have running water, electricity or gas, usually a telephone and TV connections –
these all have to be paid for to the suppliers. You will also be responsible for
paying tax to your local council for community facilities like rubbish collection.
4. Caring for Children
Children, by law, have to attend school from the age of 5 and local councils are
responsible for providing free education. In addition to primary and state schools,
there are faith schools and fee paying independent schools. Similarly, you have
the right to further education at colleges and universities if you gain the right
Also British Citizens have a responsibility to care for their children (the law
states children under 16 years of age must always be supervised by an adult). Your
children must also attend school ranging the ages of 5 and 16.
The Department of Work & Pensions or HM Revenue & Customs can inform you whether
you have the right to be entitled to Public Funds if you are on a low income. If
this is under a condition “no recourse to public funds”, it means you will not be
able to claim most benefits from the state system.
You may have the right to drive in the UK with a foreign driving licence, but this
can be verified with the DVLA or the police. There are various laws relating to
driving including insurance, an MOT certificate (which states that the car is safe
to drive) and Excise Duty which is called a tax disc and must be displayed in your
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Becoming a British Citizen can be a daunting task. Apart from the basic requirements
of language, residency or eligibility, the number of forms to be filled in to apply
to become a British Citizen can be off-putting for most people. Perhaps, in the
first instance it would be advisable to find an immigration advisor, by contacting
the Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner which is responsible for regulating
If you feel that you can “go it alone”, there are plenty of websites that point
you in the right direction and provide you with free advice on becoming a British
Citizen. However, first and foremost find out if you are already a British citizen
and the most acceptable and convenient way of proving this is whether you qualify
for a British Passport. If you have a British passport issued on or after 1st January
1983 it will say whether or not you are a British citizen. Once this has been decided
you need to know which form of nationality you should apply for. There are six forms
- British citizenship
- British overseas citizenship
- British overseas territories citizenship
- British national (overseas)
- British protected person
- British subject.
The law appertaining to British citizenship is ruled by the definitions and requirements
of the British Nationality Act 1981 and also the Immigration Act 1971 which specifies
the right to live and work in the UK. If you need help in obtaining any information
about laws and how you qualify, it is probably best to read all the leaflets in
the first instance that are produced by the UK Border Agency about applying for
Once you become a British citizen, you can keep your own present citizenship or
nationality although many countries do now allow you to have dual nationalities,
so it is best to check with your own country first to see whether they allow this.
Since the 1st January 1983 a person who gains citizenship of any other country can
no longer be a British subject.
British subjects are not necessarily British citizens, confusing but fact. Until
1949, almost everyone with a close connection with the United Kingdom was called
a British subject. Before January 1983 all Commonwealth citizens were British subjects,
but since that date, there have been very few categories of people who have qualified.
To ensure that you know the requirements of being a British subject, you again need
to read the information provided by the UK Border Agency or the UK Government information
If you are married to a national of another country, you may automatically assume
his or her partner’s nationality and children born abroad may also have their parent’s
nationality. All these facts can be checked with your country’s consulate or commission.
You became a British overseas citizen if you were a citizen of the UK and colonies
on 31st December 1982 and you did not become either a British citizen or a British
overseas territories citizen on 1st January 1983. As you can see you have to read
the wording very carefully to understand all the finer points of citizenship as
the devil is in the detail so it pays to sure of your facts and to seek help if
you’re not absolutely clear about how to become a British Citizen.
Apart from the above, there is also a category of “British Protected Person”. This
means you can hold a British passport, you are regarded as a British national and
you can receive assistance from UK consuls and diplomatic posts. However, as a British
Protected Person you cannot vote in the UK, hold some public offices, are subject
to some immigration controls (whereby you do not have the right to work or live
in the UK) and you are not considered to be a UK national by the European Community.
To become a naturalised British citizen, you must be 18 or over and have been living
in the UK for 3 – 5 years depending on whether you married or have a civil partner
who is a British citizen.
Other factors also determine whether you should hold the title of British citizen
namely - being of sound mind and of good character. There is a ‘Life in the UK Test’
which is now required for settlement in the UK or British citizenship, but not everyone
has to take this test. If your English language is not fluent, you can choose to
attend classes on the English language and also on becoming a British Citizen. You
will also need to take an “Oath of Allegiance” and make a pledge at the British
citizen ceremony before your registration is complete.
Lastly – fees have to be paid – for the handling of the application to become a
British citizen and the Citizenship ceremony and these have to be paid in full at
the time of the application irrespective of whether your application to become a
British citizen is successful or not. We wish you luck on your application to become
a British Citizen.
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In Great Britain, we do not have a Constitution which is written down in a single
formal document as other countries like the USA have and it is often stated that
Britain has an “unwritten or de facto constitution”. The British Constitution consists
of a set of rules of government which can be found from various different sources.
These sets of rules have been handed down and have been based on unwritten customs
and rules which are called conventions. To protect these conventions, laws have
been written. For example “Statute Law” which is formally written legislation created
and agreed by the British Parliament, “Common Law” which has been used in courts
of law as part of the justice system and “European Law” which affects the British
Constitution now that we are members of the European Union.
The British Constitution has other unwritten sources, including parliamentary constitutional
conventions and the royal prerogatives. Today the royal prerogative is concerned
with the conduct of foreign affairs, defence, and national security and also appoints
Bishops and Archbishops of the Church of England, but in reality the Queen has only
limited powers and the prerogative is today in the hands of the Prime Minister and
Parliamentary sovereignty decrees that Parliament is the supreme law-making body
and any acts passed are the highest source of British law. The fundamental principles
in British law are that everyone is equal before the law, no person is above the
law, and basically people are not punished unless they breach the laws of the land.
Therefore we live in a “free society”.
British Parliament may pass any legislation that it wishes in contrast to other
countries where they cannot pass laws that contradict their constitution. Acts of
Parliament are laws (statutes) that have been approved by Parliament (Sovereign,
the House of Lords and the House of Commons).
In 1215, a document known as the Magna Carta, was commissioned by the Barons of
the land. This set out for the first time the King’s duty to his subjects and their
rights and responsibilities. This later became the Writ of Habeas Corpus which included
the rights of the common person so as to prevent unlawful imprisonment. Although
in medieval times the Magna Carta did not limit the power of the monarchy, by the
time of the English Civil War, it symbolised the fact that the King was bound and
governed by the same laws as the citizens of the land. However, most of the clauses
in their original form were repealed and renewed from the Middle ages up to the
end of the 19th Century.
Since then the British Constitution has been affected by the 1972 Act when Britain
joined the European Community and has since been further changed with the Human
Rights Act of 1998. Statute Law is therefore an amalgamation of all these laws.
Devolution has also given Scotland and Northern Ireland powers to create additional
legislation for their citizens.
As mentioned above most British citizens have their rights to be heard in courts
throughout the UK. Common Law is based on precedent so that decisions made by judges
allow judgements to be made following similar procedures and decisions in previous
cases. Most courts have juries (made up of ordinary people) who have the power to
deliver their verdicts on recommendations from the judges. Sometimes Parliament
pass new laws or amend the laws in special circumstances. For example whether capital
punishment should be introduced or whether seat belts in cars should be made mandatory.
Rights and Responsibilities of a British Citizen
Within the British Constitution there are many rights and responsibilities which
cover subjects from human rights , freedom of speech and freedom from torture down
to the commonplace rights relating to health, discrimination and education. Loyalty
to the Crown and being a law-abiding citizen includes duties involving voting, jury
service and giving evidence in Courts of Law.
The Church of England
Parliament retains authority to pass laws regulating the Church of England which
is the established Church in Great Britain.
The European Court of Justice has the power to make decisions and is the highest
authority to decide points of law in the European Community. These laws come from
EC treaties and are considered legally superior to British domestic law.
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The United Kingdom, yet again distinguishes a featured diversity in its electoral
system due to the presence of six different systems that are carried out throughout
the nation namely, the Single Member Plurality System (First Past the Post), Multi
member plurality system, Party list, Single Transferable Vote, Additional Member
System and Supplementary Vote. These systems are carried out by a set of outlined
elections categorized as General elections, Elections to devolved parliaments and
assemblies, Elections to the European Parliament, Local elections and Mayoral elections.
Any citizen who is a legal resident of United Kingdom and above the age of 18 prior
or on the day of the election is eligible to vote provided he does not have a criminal
record, name is in the electoral list, is a current member of the house of the Lords
or has been involved in corrupt or illegal practices. The members of the House of
the Lords participate in European Elections, Scottish Parliament and National Assembly
for Wales. Members of the royal family are also eligible to vote, provided they
don’t fall under a system of Titles. A weird system is how the UK government manages
to keep the ones who’ve gone abroad intact. They have a facility where they can
register as an overseas voter and still cater their little bit to their motherland
by voting for the land they were a resident of, before they settled abroad.
The ruling and most effective elections are the "First-Past-The-Post" (FPTP) and
the General Election system. The former is one of a kind where those who wish to
fight an election can register and do so, thereby when the election takes place,
a citizen who wins the highest number of votes within one particular constituency
wins the election. Therefore the results are quite transparent and the methods involved
are crystal clear, brisk and straight which is why it is a rare scenario to find
a situation that ends in a recount or a tie. The process involved is very normal
where a mark is placed on a ballot paper and the process of counting is quite fast
wherein the results of the poll are announced the next day itself. In spite of a
gradual level of the interests that this system created among lay men it had drawbacks,
where spokes were voted against in many cases, the nation voted in governments that
had less people vote for them but won more seats than their opponents and cases
where claims were more for labor, due to influence to again popular votes. All these
cornered and disabled this system and demanded a more representative and fair result
for a better future.
The General elections consisted of the type where the Members of Parliament (MPs)
forming the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are elected.
These elections are entitled for conventions but the timings are fixed by the party
since the period of sessions is for five years, but then defaults in dissolution
at the end of the term. It works in a way to compliment the First Past the Post
system since it follows this to elect a single member of parliament for each constituency.
This hence compliments to allot the government itself, as the party with the highest
number of seats i.e. the most MP’s form the government and the second largest party
forms Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition. This totally defies the purpose since most
of the candidates are members of a political party and the majority of voters in
the United Kingdom choose to cast their vote based on the candidate’s party rather
than the personality.
The fixed time for an election to take place, so as to manage the assembling of
the new parliament and the election campaign is between five to eight weeks and
the term of the functioning of the parliament is six to five years. The cabinet
also imposes the purdah system before election’s to prevent miscommunication of
any new or controversial initiatives. Post the elections, the polls close at 10
pm and counting follows immediately so that results are announced at the earliest.
Thereby all the above experiences have led to a tough electoral reform system that
showcases the government’s pledge to reduce and equalize constituencies for the
nation of The United Kingdom.
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Dependent upon a person’s residency status and length, healthcare in the UK is free
at point of delivery from the National Health Service. Permanent residents do not
have to pay for treatment given by general practitioners (GP’s) who are the first
point of call when an illness occurs and the gatekeeper to further treatment and
investigations. Every British subject is entitled to be registered with a GP. These
GP’s can decide on what treatment is needed, dispense prescriptions or refer the
patient to an expert (consultant) for further advice or request further investigations
such as X-Rays, Exploratory investigations. Where emergency or hospitalisation is
needed a patient can ask their GP to make a home visit, or request an ambulance
to take them to hospital. There are also Accident and Emergency Departments or Walk
in Centres at most hospitals which deal with “walking wounded” patients who cannot
find a doctor or who believe they are in need of emergency treatment.
People who are permanent residents, but on a low income may qualify for extra free
healthcare such as dental care, vouchers for glasses, sight tests and prescriptions.
Certain infectious diseases can be treated free of charge, but only the first diagnosis
and post counselling for HIV/Aids is free. If someone needs psychiatric treatment
this is also free. Similarly anyone in need of family planning advice can get this
free of charge.
Overseas visitors and temporary visitors may also receive treatment on the NHS.
However there are certain stipulations about certain treatments and therefore it
is wise to investigate first.
Other subjects such as maternity, ex-rays, blood tests and routine investigations
and check-ups are usually free, but advice should be sought as sometimes payment
has to be made, as in the case of dental care.
In the UK, most houses and flats are owned by people rather than rented (as in Europe
or in parts of the USA). It is usual for people to try to find mortgages (or loans)
to start with, although if enough money has not been saved to put a deposit on a
house, then the only alternative is to rent accommodation from a private landlord
or housing association.
The housing market is very volatile and market conditions vary considerably; as
do prices in different parts of the country. For example housing costs more in Central
London and other large cities than in the suburbs.
Private landlords are free to charge whatever rent they can achieve, whilst housing
associations usually offer people of a lower income a better deal, sometimes offering
“share ownership” arrangements.
Housing in the UK is always equipped with running water, electricity or gas and
may have telephone and TV lines connected. Apart from these, you will also have
to pay the local council for various services that they provide like regular collection
of rubbish, road maintenance, provision of local library, etc, by way of a Council
Tax calculated by the local council authority. If you cannot afford private accommodation
you can apply to be on a council house waiting list (a points system usually applies
according to length of residence which can be lengthy and based upon need) or if
you are homeless you will be put in temporary accommodation by the local council.
In the UK it is compulsory for children to attend school from between the ages of
5 and 16 and it is their parents’ legal responsibility to ensure that this happens.
Local councils are responsible for funding and running schools that start with Primary
Schools and Junior Schools (ages 5 -11) then Secondary Schools (11- 16 or 18 yrs).
Pupils can then attend 6th Form colleges after which they can go to Universities
if they achieve the relevant examination results (GCSE’s and A-levels).
Local councils are responsible in ensuring that all children receive the education
appropriate to their needs, whether they are language or learning difficulties or
Apart from local schools, parents may choose to pay for their children to attend
private schools or they also have the right to educate their children themselves
in their own homes.
To attend universities, students have to obtain certain grades and although fees
must be paid, they are usually able to obtain loans to help with books, accommodation,
Once full time education has been fulfilled, there are added incentives for adults
to continue learning with education courses, such as the Open University or at evening
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The United Kingdom is famous for its rich culture and heritage that cannot be matched
to any nation. They had their drawbacks of government system to indulgences in war,
etc but they made their way far and clear. Its official name is actually “United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland” which refers to united state of the
four nations that were originally a part of. Though this nation comprised of geographical
diversities, the overall feeling of a strong sense of identity and nationalism prevailed
that kept them united.
A common fallacy that has not been corrected is how people think that the British
and the English are the same. In fact it is not at all that way because any person
hailing from England, Scotland Wales and Northern Ireland can be called a British.
But a person from England alone is called as English and this is a fact that has
still not been corrected yet.
The diverse culture that the nation accepted is widely known since it has accumulated
the whole immigrants from its former colonies that UK had dealt with. Therefore
this loses its ethnicity because a lot of people from West Indies, Pakistan and
India, who have settled, mixed and mingled with the originality of the nation. The
people slowly began to lose one of their main attributes of being reserve. We knew
that UK was never hesitant to invade, rule and dominate on any country but they
would lead a very private life. They never welcome anybody home and show hospitality
instead would appreciate if their privacy was not invaded and respected instead.
They maintain a level of secrecy when it comes to anything personal and would never
be nosy about one’s financial or personal affairs and would expect to receive the
The overall personality of an original inhabitant of UK is always appreciated because
his body language and his level of maturity through his talks, actions and gestures
are appreciated. Since they are more reserve in character they show it through their
handshake and in the distance at which they would pace themselves when standing
with another person. Their firm handshake is a common sign of a strong and confident
character and this is generally followed by a very formal way of introducing themselves
for a conversation, etc. They would generally find direct eye contact a very uneasy
one and due to their stringent behavior they come off as high class by default.
The most famous and decent etiquette that this nation gave rise to is the adequate
of the dining style that one has to ponder on. They are a little lenient when it
comes to punctuality at the dining table because they are people who love to entertain
quests at their homes. They follow the table manners of raising a toast for an occasion,
using the fork and knife the right way during eating, before and after the meal
as well. They will not leave the table until everyone has finished their meal and
their chew their food so elegantly.
We can now look upon the articles, games, scientists, cars and bands that make UK
much more popular that it could be. Pottery was one of its finest forms when it
is manufactured from this nation and they comprised of a whole attractive set of
tableware, decorative ceramics and even Jasper ware. One of the most luxurious and
famous car was the Rolls Royce that took birth here.
Tea drinking was another etiquette form of culture in UK. They were a famous tea
drinking nation and were one of the biggest buyers of tea. They would not compromise
on their tea breaks everyday, where they would enjoy the beverage if its dark and
strong brewed with milk and served in a classic teapot. They were also one of the
mass producers of wine and the demand was for their sparkling white and red wine.
They are also a huge contributor to the field of sports because most of the sports
like cricket, football, golf and tennis begun here officially. They gave a highlight
to some of the world famous teams like Manchester United, Arsenal and Liverpool.
The old Victorian rhyme which is enough for a couple to get married is if they have
Something old, something new, Something borrowed, something blue and a silver sixpence
in their shoe. Having a big fat Wedding is mandatory for everyone in the UK because
it means involvement of a series of customs and superstitions that are involved
and have added to the sophistications. Flowers used at Weddings play a significant
role like purity and chastity, love and hope, blood and bandages, etc. Thereby these
people bought a lot of awareness and culture by involving almost every bit of the
wedding to be in sync to symbolize and predict their journey through the marriage.
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‘Demographics’ is a collective term that includes specific information about a country
or state and its inhabitants; details include gender, age, race, income, disabilities,
location and other relevant geographic information.
The United Kingdom, which at one point had its population settle in various parts
of the world, is today one of the most populous countries in the European Union
(EU). Of course, there are favorable, people-friendly factors within the UK that
have led to this situation. Although the country is only the twenty first largest
in the world in terms of its population, it is the third largest in the EU. The
UK is also one of the most densely populated countries in the world, i.e., the population
of the country in relation to the area (size) of the country). This is, sadly for
the country, not a very good position to be in.
About 14% of the population in the UK can be found in the country’s capital, London
with about a quarter of the total population being concentrated in the south east
regions of the country.
In spite of the dense population within the UK, the country has an extremely high
literacy rate of 99% to its credit. Thanks to the compulsory and free education
offered to children under the age of 16, with an option to even continue further.
That said, there is no one official language in the UK although about ninety five
percent of the people speak English with the rest speaking Scots and a few other
According to the 2001 census, 18% of the total population is below the age of 14,
and about 66% are between 15 and 64 years of age. Another 15% of the total population
is above 65 years of age. Amongst people below the age of 65, men and women seem
to be almost equal in number. However, among the older population, the number of
women is about 10% more than the number of men.
In terms of ethnicity, about 85% of the total population is White British (the term
is according to the recent ethnic classification in the UK. The rest include White
(other), Indian, Pakistani, White Irish, Mixed Race, Black Caribbean, Black African,
Bangladeshi, Chinese and other Asians. Similarly among the total population 71%
are Christians and the other religions practiced there include, Islam, Hinduism,
Sikhism, Judaism and Buddhism.
About a decade or two ago, such details were not given as much importance as is
given today. Most of this data was only used by government officials. That is, however,
no longer the case with demographic data.
The use of demographic data has increased many folds over the last few years. Particularly,
in the field of marketing, demographic data has come to play a very significant
role. Details such as gender and age group are significant information when it comes
to determining the target audience for the product you market or advertise. Various
marketing tools, especially online marketing tools, allow a marketer to target a
particular group of people based on their age group bracket, gender, ethnicity,
education levels and much more. This not only helps the marketer or business owner
achieve good returns from marketing but also helps the audience find relevant products
or services relevant to their age group, race, ethnicity or gender. Therefore this
information mutually benefits both the business owner and the consumer.
As a result, studying demographic data and charting significant data into attractive
reports has become one of the important tasks in the day to day work of a research
professional also in addition to the primary job of a nation’s census officers.
Such is the importance of demographic data in today’s world.
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Who could ever wonder that one of the Greatest Empires in the world that spent more
time in conquering and ruling other countries is over populated!! In the past, this
nature of theirs had always brought about a state where their land was hardly populated
since they showed constant occupancy in embodying their replicas all across the
world except in their own land. Due to all of UK’s indulgences, it today creates
history since it is predicted that by 2050 Britain would be the most populous nation
in Western Europe!!
Life expectancy at birth in the United Kingdom is at its peak and on the record
for both males and females. A newborn baby boy is expected to live approximately
for about 77.4 years and a newborn baby girl for about 81.6 years if mortality rates
remain constant. All credit goes to emerging advances in Emancipation and Technology
that cater to the women by increasing their chances of fertility when they have
their children after the age of thirties and forties, which is still on the rise.
The study of the population projections depending on the life expectancies at birth
and varying rate of expectancies of those aged above 65 gives an implication that
there can be no changes in mortality. Two other factors that influence are that
there are more births than deaths and more immigrants than emigrants and hence there
is a high proportion of youngsters in UK who are more prone to spark up a life.
Prominent features that have described or brought about the overall conclusion on
the population change are as follows:
The size of the country: The size of the country contributes to the inference
because the size is one of the two major factors that determines whether or not
a particular place (of a particular size) is overpopulated or not.
Distribution of population: This again is a significant factor that contributes
to population related statistics. Unless we know the distribution of population,
we wouldn’t know whether the population in a particular city is proportionate to
the size of the city.
The statistics that cover internal migration within UK, local authority, health
authority and Government Office Regions in England and Wales and these estimates
are given by the National Health Service Central Register.
Monthly and Quarterly maternity figures are info that definitely need to be recorded
and looked at when tabulating this data. Including data such as the age of the mother,
marital status, place of residence etc., is mandatory per process.
Latest figures on conception and fertility rates including time-series data which
include conception rates by outcome (maternity or abortion), conception and fertility
rates by age, area of residence, total fertility rates, general fertility rates
and average family size. Updated statistics on mortality numbers and rates for England
and Wales, including all-cause and specific causes defined by the International
Classification of Diseases. A definite and a well gauged summary indicator of the
mortality and health of a nation, an area, or a group of people since life expectancy
data are especially useful for health researchers and for those involved in the
With all the above data the estimated number by the US Census Bureau web site for
the United Kingdom total population was at 60,944,000 for the year 2008 but since
the average annual growth rate had rose to 0.3%, this estimated a population of
United Kingdom in July of 2009 to be 61,126,832. Estimations are that the growth
between 2009 and 2081 is roughly equivalent to three times the present size of London.
And immigration, directly and indirectly, is predicted to continue to be the main
cause of future population growth for the United Kingdom.
Just like any other countries, the United Kingdom also suffers the basic levels
of changes. Increase in food production to feed the growing population along with
housing, infrastructure and land for energy crop production, diverse environment
changes that contribute to political instability, conflicts, increased international
migration and severe depletion of natural resources. All these factors though controlled
moderately, directly play a vital role for hamper of the well being of this nation.
Finally let us focus on how the Optimum Population Trust has policies and is trying
at its level best to stop the population to go up to 70 million. The principle policy
states that all citizens need to have the right to information on family planning.
In the light of having a quality life with good food and education, the advised
number of children per family is two. The second policy is for UK to stabilize its
population and decrease by not less than 0.25%, neutralize the immigration and emigration
count, reduce teenage pregnancies and encourage couples to stop at two. Hope the
policies are implemented in a way to deviate a change and in turn shadow the history
and empowerment attribute of the United Kingdom yet again!
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A constitution is a set of norms & regulations that a group of people will have
to follow in order to have structured governance in the state or country. But strangely
the nature of the UK constitution is not quite the one that won the confidence of
the common man, due to the numerous changes that resulted in explicit objectives.
Hence we can definitely agree that the nature can be quoted as 'uncodified' rather
Since a prominent set of rules had been set by the House of the Lords in 2001, these
rules have played a role in the functioning of the government to some extent. Therefore,
we cannot deny the fact that UK does have an implemented and framed constitution.
The most exhilarating attribute of the nature of the constitution is its stereotype
convention which portrayed and manipulated the skeleton of the whole system itself
which we still talk about. This could have been an exception if the same conventions
were introduced as an inference to a judicial or legislative intervention but instead
they were end products of customs, behavior, common practices and statue law that
categorized more of a myth than reality. The conventions reflect the influence of
mid Victorian values that failed to create something enduring which is more adaptable
for the changing features of a government and hence they contradict them from being
rigid, federal, practical and doctrinal. The only reason that it can slightly be
favoring the written characteristic is that it followed the statue law that were
from all the Acts, i.e. Acts of Union (1707), the Reform Act (1832), Parliament
Acts (1911 & 1949), Human Rights Act (1998), Government of Wales Act (1998) and
the Scotland Act (1998).
The constitution of UK lacked a formal lapse of separation of powers, i.e., the
legislature, the executive and the judiciary which created a void in the constitutional
arrangements. The Lords emphasized on managing all the three powers by dominating,
enforcing the law and making decisions on wisdom of conventions. They worked almost
convincingly that brought about signs of non stipulation of rules and relationship
between the government and the individuals. If we were to draw more of UK’s history,
tradition and culture the non structural format of the same will be highlighted
more than usual because the features were the ones that were influenced by the strong
traditions of local government within a non-federal system and they largely affected
every minute complexity and variety that arose. An outstanding nature is also the
historic feature that was implemented where the Royal Prerogative gives the crown
and royal powers that include power to declare war, make treaties, pardon criminals
and even dissolve parliament at times. The factor of sovereignty is also questionable
because this almost disabled the parliament since they was no greater body or authority
to rectify and alter the decisions made by the parliament no matter what laws they
make or unmake at any given time.
Hence we see with a lot of examples that the absence of entrenched laws created
more classifications from constitutional law to ordinary law. All these have in
turn contributed for a revert in phase that we now see for UK mainly because the
parliamentary sovereignty is directly challenged by the membership of the European
Union and the member states have joined hands too that brought about a hue change
and birth to the European Court of Justice!
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